Yukie Nishiyama1, Makoto Tahara2, Hidetoshi Tahara1
1) Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology,Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima university, Japan;
2) Department of Head and Neck Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan;
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression. miRNAs exist in exosomes, which are 50–100nm in size extracellular vesicles (EVs) and secrete from mammalian cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs and other small RNAs stably exist in body fluids and their expression patterns in cancer patients are distinct from those in healthy individuals. In this study, we analyzed non-coding small RNAs including miRNAs that specifically exist in plasma/serum of patients with breast and tongue cancer by using NGS plat form. We identified a number of biomarker candidates such as mature miRNAs, isomiR, tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), and other ncRNA, are known to regulate expression of genes involved in cell metabolism and are released into body fluid from various cells with extracellular vesicles. To test the possibilities that these candidate small RNAs are secreted from cancer cells, we purified EVs from serum in health volunteer and cancer patients, and analyzed small RNAs using NGS, and found that some of candidate small RNAs can be found in EVs. Interestingly, these small RNAs are also found in culture media in cancer cell lines. Based on our alogism, we identified significant biomarker secreted from cancer cells for early detection of cancer.
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